The mysterious case of the CPE

In my previous article I explained how a ‘convolution integral’ can be used to simulate a constant phase element (abbreviation ‘CPE’, symbol ‘Q’) in the time domain. This is useful, but there is much more to this simple element than meets the eye. Specifically, when combined with a series resistance to form a very basic … Read more

Changing Fuels

Okay. Hands up everyone who is prepared to give up flying for the rest of their lives? Hmmm. Not very many of you? Now keep your hand raised if you are also prepared to give up driving… …and heating your home… …or buying anything from a shop, or a restaurant, or online. No-one? Well, I … Read more